Potatoes are undoubtedly an excellent choice for these meals. When diagnosed with celiac disease, one begins a long road to travel. You start searching for foods that can replace those that contain gluten. Potato flour can also be extracted to be used to prepare many nutritious and delicious dishes!
In this article we will dive into the world of potatos!
Tubers, potatoes and their derivatives
Home grown or purchased in the market, fresh potatoes can be baked, boiled or fried, and used in an amazing variety of recipes: mashed potatoes, pancakes, dumplings, fritters, soups, salads or scalloped potatoes, among many other forms of preparation.
But global potatoes consumption is shifting from fresh produce to industiral food products that have added nutrients. One of the main foods in this category has received a slightly unattractive name, called frozen potatoes. These make up the majority of French fries served at restaurants and fast food chains worldwide.
Other industrial products are crunchy potato chips, the undisputed king of snack foods in many developed countries. Made with thin potato pancakes fried in plenty of oil, or baked, they come in a variety of flavors; they could be plain salty chips, to “gourmet” varieties with meat or spice flavors. Some chip varieties are produced from dehydrated potato dough.
Dehydrated potato flakes and potato granules are obtained by drying cooked potatos and grinding them to a moisture level of 5% to 8%. These flakes can be used to make boxed mashed potatoes, or as an ingredient for preparing snacks and even dietary supplements: the United States has distributed potato flakes to more than 600 000 people internationally, as an aid.
Potato flour: ideal for Celiacs
Potato flour is a dehydrated product and is made from whole, cooked potatoes. It has a very distinctive flavor. The food industry uses potato flour, which is gluten-free but that contains abundant starch to bind products that are composed of various types of meat and to thicken sauces and soups.
Modern industry is capable of extracting up to 96% of the starch contained in raw potatoes. Potato starch is a fine powder, and has a tasteless “excellent texture” that makes it more viscous than wheat or corn starch. It also makes products more palatable. It is used to make thick sauces and stews, and also as a binder in flour for cakes, pastries, cookies and ice cream.
- Can be an important staple food, but a balanced diet should also contain vegetables and whole grain foods.
- Are a good source of calories and also have some micronutrients and a high protein content compared to other roots and tubers.
- Contain very little fat, but preparing and serving them with other ingredients that have a higher fat content will increase a dish’s caloric value.
- Cooking potatoes in their skin prevents them from losing their nutrients.
- Are an important element in many people’s diets, but they must be balanced with other vegetables and whole grain foods.
- Are a versatile food and they contain a lot of carbohydrates. They are popular worldwide and are prepared and served in a variety of ways. Its protein content is very high compared to other roots and tubers.
- Are also low in fat. Potatoes are abundant with micronutrients, especially vitamin C: one half potato, about 150 grams, consumed with the skin, provides nearly half the adult daily requirement (100 mg) of vitamin C.
- Potatoes contain a moderate amount of iron, but the high vitamin C content promotes mineral absorption. This tuber also provides vitamins B1, B3 and B6, and minerals like potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, folate, pantothenic acid and riboflavin.
- They also contain antioxidants, which may help prevent age-related diseases. They have fiber, whose consumption is good for health.
The nutritional value of foods containing potatoes depends on other foods that accompany them and the method of preparation. Banishing the myth itself, potatoes are not fattening. The sense of satiety produced by consuming potatoes may actually help people keep their figure. However, preparing and consuming potatoes with ingredients high in fat increases the caloric value of the dish.
Because some people cannot digest the starch in raw potatoes, they could eat them boiled (with or without skin), baked or fried. Each method of preparation affects the potatoe’s composition in different ways, but each way of cooking them reduces their fiber and protein content. These drain out in the water or oil, and heat or chemical changes such as oxidation also destroys these nutrients.
When boiling potatoes – the most common method of preparation throughout the world – a lot of vitamin C is lost, especially in peeled potatoes. French fries and potato chips, fried in hot oil (140 º C to 180 ° C) absorb a lot of fat and this method greatly reduces the minerals and ascorbic acid content in them. In general, baking causes a slightly greater loss of vitamin C than cooking in water, because the oven temperature is higher. On the other hand, however, less vitamins and minerals are lost in this way.
This is pure starch – a tasteless powder extracted from potatoes but that contains none of their vitamins or minerals. It is used commercially in packaged snacks but can be found online and in some specialty stores.
When you cannot find starch, potato flour is an easy substitute, made with cooked, dried and ground potatoes. A lot of recipes use both ingredients interchangeably. Both starch and potato flour can be used to bind meat mixtures, such as meatballs, or to thicken gravies and soups. It is ideal for gluten-free recipes, and is suitable for Celiacs.
- Ferreira, S. M. R., de Mello, A. P., de Caldas Rosa dos Anjos, M., Kruger, C. C. H., Azoubel, P. M., & de Oliveira Alves, M. A. (2016). Utilization of sorghum, rice, corn flours with potato starch for the preparation of gluten-free pasta. Food Chemistry, 191, 147–151.
- Gliszczynska-Swiglo, A., Klimczak, I., & Rybicka, I. (2018). Chemometric analysis of minerals in gluten-free products. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(8), 3041–3048.
- Zhang, D., Mu, T., & Sun, H. (2018). Effects of starch from five different botanical sources on the rheological and structural properties of starch-gluten model doughs. Food Research International (Ottawa, Ont.), 103, 156–162.
- Zhang, D., Mu, T., & Sun, H. (2017). Comparative study of the effect of starches from five different sources on the rheological properties of gluten-free model doughs. Carbohydrate Polymers, 176, 345–355.
- Horstmann, S. W., Belz, M. C. E., Heitmann, M., Zannini, E., & Arendt, E. K. (2016). Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads. Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 5(2).
- Horstmann, S. W., Foschia, M., & Arendt, E. K. (2017). Correlation analysis of protein quality characteristics with gluten-free bread properties. Food & Function, 8(7), 2465–2474.
- do Nascimento, A. B., Fiates, G. M. R., Dos Anjos, A., & Teixeira, E. (2013). Analysis of ingredient lists of commercially available gluten-free and gluten-containing food products using the text mining technique. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 64(2), 217–222.